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The chemical signals detected by one cell may be different from the signals detected by its neighbour cells.
The ovum contains a small collection of cells in the early stages of human development.
As cells divide (A–D), they are separated into different regions of the ovum.
The orderly development of an organism depends on a process called cell determination, in which initially identical cells become committed to different pathways of development.
A fundamental part of cell determination is the ability of cells to detect different chemicals within different regions of the embryo.
metre) in thickness, surrounds every living cell, delimiting the cell from the environment around it.
Enclosed by this cell membrane (also known as the plasma membrane) are the cell’s constituents, often large, water-soluble, highly charged molecules such as proteins, nucleic acids, carbohydrates, and substances involved in cellular metabolism.Nuclear Receptors: Cellular location and molecular organisation of receptors. Receptors as sequence-specific DNA binding proteins. G-Protein Coupled Receptors: Receptors coupled to heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide binding proteins (G proteins).Composition and classification of G-proteins, their activation and modulation by toxins and disease. Interactions of Signalling Pathways: 'Cross-Talk' between different pathways and messenger molecules.All of the daughter cells contain the same chromosomes and therefore the same genetic information.Despite this common inheritance, different types of cells behave differently and have different structures.Outside the cell, in the surrounding water-based environment, are ions, acids, and alkalis that are toxic to the cell, as well as nutrients that the cell must absorb in order to live and grow.The cell membrane, therefore, has two functions: first, to be a barrier keeping the constituents of the cell in and unwanted substances out and, second, to be a gate allowing transport into the cell of essential nutrients and movement from the cell of waste products. Extrinsic proteins are loosely bound to the hydrophilic (polar) surfaces, which face the watery medium both inside and outside the cell.Careful studies of these and other cell types have shown that all membranes are composed of proteins and fatty-acid-based mitochondrion, the most rapidly metabolizing organelle of the cell, contains as much as 75 percent protein, while the membrane of the Schwann cell, which forms an insulating sheath around many nerve cells, has as little as 20 percent protein.A synopsis of the curriculum The module begins by overviewing the diverse mechanisms used by cells to communicate, considering the main modes of cell-cell communication, the major classes of signalling molecules and the receptor types upon which they act.Integration of signalling components: Role of adapter proteins (e.g.GRB2) and their protein-protein interaction domains (SH2, SH3 etc.) in linking ligand-receptor complexes to intracellular proteins.