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Antisocial personality disorder (ASPD or APD) is a personality disorder characterized by a long term pattern of disregard for, or violation of, the rights of others.
The association is also influenced by negative experience in early life, with children possessing a low-activity variant (MAOA-L) who experience such maltreatment being more likely to develop antisocial behavior than those with the high-activity variants (MAOA-H).
The gene that encodes for the serotonin transporter (SCL6A4), a gene that is heavily researched for its associations with other mental disorders, is another gene of interest in antisocial behavior and personality traits.
Two developmental courses for CD have been identified based on the age at which the symptoms become present.
The first is known as the "childhood-onset type" and occurs when conduct disorder symptoms are present before the age of 10 years.
Genetic associations studies have suggested that the short "S" allele is associated with impulsive antisocial behavior and ASPD in the inmate population.
However, research into psychopathy find that the long "L" allele is associated with the Factor 1 traits of psychopathy, which describes its core affective (e.g.lack of empathy, fearlessness) and interpersonal (e.g.grandiosity, manipulativeness) personality disturbances. Various other gene candidates for ASPD have been identified by a genome-wide association study published in 2016.Both manuals provide similar criteria for diagnosing the disorder.Both have also stated that their diagnoses have been referred to, or include what is referred to, as psychopathy or sociopathy, but distinctions have been made between the conceptualizations of antisocial personality disorder and psychopathy, with many researchers arguing that psychopathy is a disorder that overlaps with, but is distinguishable from, ASPD.Serious problems with interpersonal relationships are often seen in those with the disorder.Attachments and emotional bonds are weak, and interpersonal relationships often revolve around the manipulation, exploitation, and abuse of others.Individuals with this personality disorder will typically have no compunction in exploiting others in harmful ways for their own gain or pleasure and frequently manipulate and deceive other people, achieving this through wit and a façade of superficial charm or through intimidation and violence.Irresponsibility is a core characteristic of this disorder: they can have significant difficulties in maintaining stable employment as well as fulfilling their social and financial obligations, and people with this disorder often lead exploitative, unlawful, or parasitic lifestyles.People with an antisocial or alcoholic parent are considered to be at higher risk.Fire-setting and cruelty to animals during childhood are also linked to the development of antisocial personality.