The point here is that every word and phrase means something particular, so when you attempt to replace or rearrange them, make sure that your alterations do In a broad sense, this version may seem to capture the idea of the original, and the phrasing is certainly substantially different, but upon analysis it is clear that the paraphrase itself overlooks (or ignores) many of the important distinctions that the original version makes.
(3.5) provides techniques for making citations more concise when a source is used more than once in succession. if these techniques would create ambiguity about your sources” (124). For example, if you are writing an essay about outer space, and you cite an article saying that there are about twenty thousand man-made objects orbiting the Earth (Witze), you do not need to cite the same source if you reintroduce that figure. “The Quest to Conquer Earth’s Space Junk Problem.” How you cite e-mail messages depends on how you are using them in your work. If you paraphrase a single idea from more than one source and the sources are equally important, the order in which you list them is up to you. notes, when you borrow an idea from a source, “it is important to signal at the end . A parenthetical citation is just one way to indicate this switch. The writing might take the form of marking up a text or making notes about it (Baron 194).
For example (with an APA-formatted citation): If you want to include a quotation into your writing, make sure to introduce, cite, and explain the quotation. Introduce your quotes by stating the author’s last name, any necessary background information, and a signal verb.
According to APA guidelines, signal verbs should be written in the past tense, for all quotes.
In addition to using synonyms, you should change syntax, or word order.
To do this, consider what the sentence is trying to communicate and then rephrase it in your own words: changing the meaning.
When you paraphrase, you keep the same meaning of the original text, but you use different words and phrasing to convey that meaning, “The feminization of clerical work and teaching by the turn of the century reflected the growth of business and public education. Throughout the nineteenth century, stereotyping of work by sex had restricted women's employment.
Job options were limited; any field that admitted women attracted a surplus of applicants willing to work for less pay than men would have received.
But if you quote directly from a single message that you received or paraphrase its contents, it may be clearer and more economical to create a works-cited-list entry for the message. But if some sources are more relevant to the idea than others, you might list the sources in order of relevance: Scholars have long advanced the idea that political and economic forces undergird how narratives are shaped (Jameson; Poovey; Cohen). You could also provide the page number for the quotation in parentheses and then insert an endnote about the paraphrase: Andrew Davis asserts that the strategies undertaken by the institution were well formulated but ultimately unsuccessful because the institution failed to persuade employees that the “preemptive” . Translated by Samuel Moore and Edward Aveling, edited by Frederick Engels, vol. It may, however, be better to revise: Karl Marx said that a commodity is a strange object (47).
The following examples paraphrase information presented by Pfanner and cite his article as the source of the information, . For example, the following is a paraphrase from an essay by Naomi S.