Parkinson'S Essay Conclusion

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In addition, the antiviral agent amantadine can reduce certain symptoms of the brain stimulation (DBS) has been successful in decreasing involuntary movements, improving debilitating problems with gait and slowness of movement, and reducing doses of medications.These signals work by disrupting the physiological impulses that cause disordered movement.Spinal cord stimulation, an experimental therapy, has also shown some benefit in improving movement in patients with Parkinson disease.Although initially beneficial in causing a significant remission of symptoms, levodopa frequently is effective for only 5 to 10 years, and serious side effects—including uncontrolled movements, hallucinations, persistent nausea and vomiting, and changes in behaviour and mood—often accompany treatment.Cotreatment with a drug called carbidopa, which inhibits an enzyme that breaks down levodopa prior to crossing the blood-brain barrier, allows higher concentrations of levodopa to reach the brain.Parkinson disease often begins with a slight tremor of the thumb and forefinger, sometimes called “pill-rolling,” and slowly progresses over a period of 10 to 20 years.Advanced disease is often characterized by loss of facial expression, reduced rate of swallowing leading to drooling, severe depression, dementia, and paralysis.dopamine, a neurotransmitter that plays an important role in the inhibition of nerve impulses in the brain, has been noted in patients with Parkinson disease.Although Parkinson disease is rarely inherited, individuals who have first-degree relatives with the disease appear to be at increased risk.In addition, mutations in a gene called parkin, have been associated with early-onset (before age 40) Parkinson disease and with some cases of late-onset (after age 50) Parkinson disease.In this therapy, electrodes are implanted into the epidural space along the spinal cord.When switched on, the device emits electrical pulses at a frequency that stimulates the spinal cord and potentially boosts communication between the spinal cord and areas of the brain that control motor activity.

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