Such studies must be carefully planned, because they are expensive in time, money, and effort.
This chapter presents a general framework for identifying, scoping, and planning studies of en- vironmental problems.
Scientists can help to identify non- obvious goals and can indicate the environmental and economic costs involved.
Scientists are also needed to translate environmental goals into scientific objectives, which show what information is needed to answer the major questions and hence help in the planning of studies.
Provincial wildlife biologists recognized caribou migration as a major public concern in the Newfoundland hydroelectric development case (Chapter 161.
In the case of Lake Washington (Chapter 20), interested scientists and the public cooperated to define goals and develop an appropriate response; the DDT case (Chapter 24) shows how such interactions can lead to new understanding and to legislation.
The National Envi- ronmental Policy Act requires early public and professional input in iden- tifying those issues (Council on Environmental Quality, 1978~.
The goal of protecting the Southern Indian Lake whitefish fishery was economically motivated (Chapter 211.
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